8 Top-Rated Programming Languages for 2019

8 Top-Rated Programming Languages for 2019

by Alexander Zhitskiy

The days of pen and paper are gone. Now, every industry is using computers to store and maintain essential data and files. Therefore, programmers are in huge demand and so are programming languages. It’s 2019, and new programming languages have emerged in the IT industry. In today’s world, everything is getting digitized, and this requires us to learn new programming languages that are becoming more prominent demand.

The developer community and programming skills are blooming at a much faster rate than before. A lot of new, as well as existing, programming languages are being used by different developers as per their skillset (beginners, intermediate, and experts). Programming languages are used in web applications, mobile apps, creating databases, game development, embedded applications, distributed systems, etc.

For people who are interested in joining the IT industry, learning a few programming languages is a must. But, there are hoards of languages that are in high demand, making it difficult to decide which language they should choose to start a new career.

If you had to make a choice, which programming language would you choose?

We’ve compiled a list of eight top-rated programming languages for 2019. All of these languages are in massive demand, and if a programmer is adept in even one of these, they will likely be sought after.

Let’s begin.

1. Python

Python tops our list as the #1 top-rated programming languages in 2019. It is an easy-to-use and easy-to-deploy language that is widely used for developing web applications. Websites like YouTube, SurveyMonkey, and Pinterest have been built using Python. Python is an object-oriented, high-level programming language which offers dynamic semantics.

You’ll find that Python is used in web-based applications, network servers, desktop apps, media tools, AI, and machine learning. Also, it can also be used as a scripting language to combine existing components. Python is considered an easy-to-learn programming language, as its syntax emphasizes readability and reduces costs associated with program maintenance. It is useful for back-end services for high security.

Pros:

1. Python extensive library and its interpreter are available in binary or source free on all major platforms.

2. Python fosters code program modularity and code reuse.

3. It has frameworks like Django, Turbo Gear, and Pyramid for skilled developers.

4. It is suitable for Rapid Application Development (RAD) due to its high-level, built-in data structures, which are combined with dynamic-binding and dynamic-typing.

Cons:

1. Speed is a little slower in Python in comparison to C++.

2. It is not suitable in applications where memory consumption is massive and requires high CPU utilization.

3. Python has some limitations with the database access when compared with JDBC and ODBC. Python’s DB layer is not highly recommended and can’t be applied to enterprise applications that require interactions with complex data.

Let’s take a look at the syntax of Python’s language with a simple “Hello World” program.

“Hello World!” program in Python:

#Comment: This program prints Hello World!
print('Hello World!')

See, how simple it is? Now, let’s move on to the next language on the list.

2.  GO

Developed by Google engineers in 2007 as an alternative to C++, GO is a general-purpose programming language that helps software engineers build fast, dependable software. For communication, high-speed compilation, and concurrency, GO offers good support. Some of the useful characteristics of GO include multiprocessing, run-time efficiency, and static typing.

Composition interfaces are given higher priority over inheritance in GO. Another much-appreciated characteristic of the language is its readability; thanks to the feature known as ‘Gofmt,’ the language idents and formats the code automatically. It has a clear and concise syntax where things are kept explicit, and there is no need for implicit conversions.

Another feature of GO is ‘Go Run,’ which concurrently runs and compiles the code. Further, ‘Go Doc’ converts the code into HTML or plain text, depending on the user’s input. Moreover, ‘Go Get’ also helps users to connect with GitHub. GO offers regular, uncomplicated grammar, and most importantly, it allows the code to work out on its own, which ultimately reduces typing.

Pros:

1. Go ensures memory safety, and it is easy on the hard disk.

2. It has a wide range of built-in libraries that provide functionality for programmers.

3. Multiprocessing is supported because of the lightweight Goroutine processes. This helps users to handle multiple programming tasks smoothly.

4. Surprisingly, this language has an automated garbage collection, which is the basic need for concurrency. This helps in automatically de-allocating the memory used by variables that are no longer required after a certain interval of time in the program’s execution.

Cons:

1. It imposes strict rules. That is a huge problem for most programmers. Generally, programmers like to work in a stress-free environment but GO’s rules make doing so difficult.

2. Memory management is essential, and as it lacks, it could result in overhead garbage collection.

Now, let’s have a look at the language’s syntax through a simple “Hello World” program.

“Hello World!” program in GO:

package main
import "fmt"
func main()
{
	fmt.Println("Hello World")
}

3. Swift

Swift is a programming language mostly used in iOS development. Other than that, it is used for macOS, tvOS, and watchOS. Swift is a safe language that produces fast and interactive software.

The latest version of Swift is Swift 4. This version takes the best features of version 3 and builds upon them. The most significant improvement in Swift 4 comes is in build times, which have been reduced to make the programmer’s life easier.

Pros:

1. It is safe. The syntax encourages the programmer to write clean code, preventing errors and increasing readability.

2. The language is comprehensive. If you learn Swift, you can most certainly learn other programming languages quickly.

3. It is elegantly designed. While using Swift, you will experience unique concepts, like static typing and why it is a good thing.

4. Swift is open source. Within a concise amount of time, Swift amassed an active community where help is readily available.

Cons:

1. Swift changes frequently. While learning the language, the programmer will be in trouble if they choose an old tutorial to learn from because the information likely won’t apply anymore.

2. Swift is only used to program Apple devices, which means it is losing out to a galaxy of devices that use other operating systems.

3. It is still relatively young. It has many issues that have yet to be addressed adequately.

4. It has a limited community. Even though Swift is growing quickly and more people are learning the language daily, it still has a relatively small user-base, which means less support.

Here’s a glance at the syntax used in Swift’s programming language.

“Hello World!” program in Swift:

 
//Comment: Hello World! Program 
import Swift  
print("Hello World!")
4. Java

Java is the most common programming language used worldwide for application development. It was created by Sun Microsystems, but later, Oracle acquired Java. It is a platform-independent language and can be run on any system that has Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed. It is not dependent on any particular OS or processor. The latest Java version is SE11.

It is incredibly stable for creating enterprise applications, and many large organizations use Java for building their systems. It is also used in Android app development; this provides more opportunities to Java developers as Google has created Android Studio framework. It is an object-oriented programming language and uses OOPS concepts.

Pros:

1. It is a very straightforward language for writing and debugging code. It uses extensive features like garbage collection and auto-memory allocation using objects.

2. It is an object-oriented programming language and thus helps you to define the data types and their structures. You can also apply a set of instructions using functions in Java. Therefore, it follows the sequence of instructions step-by-step following the order that the code was written in.

3. It uses simple syntax that is converted using interpreters or compilers, which makes your code easy to understand and maintain.

4. You can write your code once and run it anywhere on any operating system.

5. It allows you to run multiple threads at the same time to maximize the CPU utilization time and to share the same memory area for running the code in a lesser amount of time.

Cons:

1. Java consumes a large amount of memory when compared to other programming languages like C++. This slows down the overall performance of the code written.

2. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the applications written in Java is entirely different from the standard native screens of the applications.

3. It has a very complex architecture of code, which is inefficient.

Here’s a simple “Hello World” program in Java.

“Hello World!” program in Java:

class HelloWorld
{  
   public static void main(String[] args)
   {
    System.out.println("Hello World!");
   }
}
5. Kotlin

JetBrains built Kotlin in 2011, and it runs on JVM. It is an open-source programming language and is mainly used for creating multi-platform applications. It is an efficient language with concise syntax and is 100% compatible with existing code.

It has interoperability with Java language and works with Java. It has a rich set of features and can be used on most of the Integrated Development Environments (IDE), including the latest Android Studio.

Pros:

1. Kotlin is much more concise than Java. For the same problem statement, we can quickly write the code using fewer lines in Kotlin than Java. This, in turn, increases the code readability and code can be maintained more easily.

2. It is much safer than Java in terms of application crashes and system failures due to programming mistakes by design. Thus, it makes the code more robust.

3. It can be coded in both an object-oriented and a functional way. It has much better support for functional programming with concise and explicit function types. It has very few bugs as of now, and it is considered reliable.

4. Kotlin can be used to increase productivity by reducing the compile time and making the language more expressive. It can also improve performance by using inlining, which is not possible in Java.

5. It helps you develop cross-platform applications easily because it is 100% compatible with your Java code.

Cons:

1. Some developers have reported that the compilation speed is slower when running code.

2. The developer community is small, and you can’t expect instant answers to your questions during the learning process.

Here is a look at the syntax of Kotlin with a simple “Hello World” program.

“Hello World!” program in Kotlin:

fun main(args : Array)
{
   println("Hello World!")
}
6. C#

C# was developed by Microsoft in 2000, and it is an object-oriented programming language used worldwide. It is mainly used for creating Microsoft platform applications. C# requires .NET framework to be installed on your machine. It is primarily used for building web applications and desktop apps.

This language is in demand because it is backed by Microsoft and an extensive community.

Pros:

1. It is based on OOPS concepts and allows you to create reusable code. Users can easily maintain code, as well.

2. It is produced by Microsoft, so you will find a lot of documentation and support if you are stuck.

3. It has automatic garbage collection feature to remove all the unnecessary memory used in the runtime by variables.

4. C# is easy to deploy because it has rich class libraries and functions present in the .NET framework.

5. Code execution is fast because it runs on Common Language Runtime (CLR).

6. Most complex functions are abstracted in C#, so developers don’t need to worry about how it works. They can just use the built-in functions provided to solve their problems.

Cons:

1. It can’t be used on systems where the .NET framework is not installed, making it only dependable to systems that have the .NET framework currently installed.

2. You have to compile your code every time, even if you make a minor change. This means that you have to recompile the entire application before deploying it again.

Here’s a sneak peek at C#’s syntax.

“Hello World!” program in C#:

using System;
namespace HelloWorldApplication
{
   class HelloWorld
   {
  	static void Main(string[] args)
  	{
     	/* my first program in C# */
     	Console.WriteLine("Hello World");
     	Console.ReadKey();
  	}
   }
}

7. C++

C++ is a high-level programming language that was developed in 1983. It is straightforward to learn because its code is written as a set of instructions to be executed by the computer in the order you have written your code. It is extremely stable and fast as compared to other programming languages. It is the core language of many system drivers, operating systems, games, and browsers.

It provides a Standard Template Library (STL), which has many ready-to-use libraries for performing various tasks related to algorithms, arithmetic operations, and data structures. It uses a multi-paradigm style of programming, including generic, object-oriented, and imperative.

Pros:

1. C++ is an object-oriented language, and its syntax is very much similar to other programming languages like C, Java, and C#. Therefore, if you know any of these languages already, you can quickly learn C++.

2. It is platform independent, and thus, it is a portable language that can be run on any OS or hardware.

3. It has wide support from existing libraries and compilers, which are compatible with C++. Therefore, you can easily use these libraries instead of creating your own.

4. Its speed is breakneck and has lower compilation time; thus, your code runs faster in comparison to other programming languages.

Cons:

1. Its standard library is small and complicated. This requires you to learn C++ thoroughly before using it.

2. Memory management is not present in C++, the programmer needs to take care of memory management on their own while writing code.

3. It is challenging to debug your code if you get a compile time/runtime error.

4. It doesn’t support custom operators and lacks algebraic data types as compared to other programming languages.

Here’s a simple “Hello World” program in C++.

“Hello World!” program in C++:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
	cout << "Hello World!";
	return 0;
}

8. JavaScript

JavaScript is a light-weight programming language used for web-based applications, it is also an object-oriented programming language. It helps users create interactive web-pages, which are an essential part of web applications. Overall, it is a reliable programming language.

Pros:

1. It has very high speed since it is run on the client’s side, meaning it doesn’t have to contact the server to run code functions.

2. It is effortless to use and implement. It is widely used and supported.

3. It reduces the server load because it runs on the client’s side.

4. It has rich interfaces and ready to use components. It also has extended functionality for third-party add-ons.

Cons:

1. Security is low as the code gets run on the client’s side; therefore, it can be exploited easily.

2. It can’t be used for networking applications. Further, it doesn’t allow reading/writing files.

3. It may cause inconsistency in some browsers, as it is rendered by different engine layouts.

Let’s now take a look at a simple “Hello World” program in JavaScript.

“Hello World!” program in JavaScript:

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
<body>
<p>Before the script...</p>
<script>
	alert( 'Hello World!' );
</script>
<p>...After the script.</p>
</body>
</html>
Conclusion

It is important to understand that the IT industry changes pace rapidly, and it is tough to tell which programming languages will be top-rated in the future. As of 2019, the languages listed above are the ones that are currently in high demand. Using our list, you can decide which one suits you best according to your career interests.

So, do you agree with our list of programming languages? Let us know in the comments below!

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